Getting to Know Thailand

Thailand, formerly known as “Siam” or “Siam Kingdom,” is a country located in mainland Southeast Asia. The majority of Thailand’s territory spans from the southern to the northern regions, which are characterized by a mix of semi-humid and semi-arid environments, making it suitable for establishing human communities.

Key Information about Thailand

Official Name: The Kingdom of Thailand
Capital City: Bangkok
Fun Fact: The full name of Bangkok is “Krung Thep Mahanakhon Amon Rattanakosin Mahinthara Ayuthaya Mahadilok Phop Noppharat Ratchathani Burirom Udom Ratchaniwet Mahasathan Amon Piman Awatan Sathit Sakkathattiya Witsanukam Prasit.”
National Religion: Buddhism, followed by Islam, Christianity, and Hinduism
National Flower: Golden Shower Tree (Ratchaphruek)
National Day: December 5
ASEAN Membership Date: August 8, 1967 (Founding Member)
National Language: Thai language
Official Language: Thai language

Geographical Location of Thailand

Thailand is situated in mainland Asia, specifically in Southeast Asia, within the region known as the “Indochinese Peninsula.” It is positioned in between the Indian Ocean and the South China Sea, bordered by neighboring countries such as Myanmar, Laos, Cambodia, Malaysia, and Vietnam, as well as close neighbors within the region, including Singapore, Indonesia, Brunei, and the Philippines.

Geographical Features

Northern Region: Characterized by high mountains, including its highest point, Doi Inthanon, an important watershed.
Northeastern (Isan) Region: Mainly consists of high, dry plateaus with limited agricultural suitability.
Central Region: Features fertile plains, particularly along the Chao Phraya River, which is the most productive area.
Southern Region: Coastal areas on both sides with many beautiful beaches, islands, and the Gulf of Thailand.
Eastern Region: Dominated by white sandy shores and curving bays.
Western Region: Hilly and mountainous terrain, including the Tenasserim Hills.

The official language of Thailand is Thai, both spoken and written. The origin of the Thai language is not definitively known, but written records date back to King Rama III’s creation of the Thai alphabet in 1826. This allowed for the preservation of Thai history and evolution, with distinct tones and pronunciation aided by diacritics. The language uses 44 consonants, 28 vowels, and various tone marks.


Buddhism is the predominant religion in Thailand, with over 90% of the population adhering to it. However, the country is characterized by religious diversity, encompassing Islam, Christianity, Hinduism, Sikhism, and other faiths. The Thai constitution protects freedom of religious belief, ensuring that every individual has the right to practice their chosen religion. The core value shared across these diverse beliefs is the promotion of virtuous conduct and the well-being of individuals and society.


Thailand experiences three main seasons: hot (March to May), rainy (June to October), and cool (November to February). The southern region has only two seasons: rainy and hot.


Thailand has a population of approximately 66 million people, featuring ethnic diversity, including the Thai majority, Chinese descendants, and various ethnic groups.

Government and Governance

Thailand is a constitutional monarchy with the King as the head of state and a parliamentary system with a Prime Minister as the head of government. The country is divided into 76 provinces, excluding Bangkok.

These insights provide a glimpse into the rich cultural, geographical, and social aspects that make Thailand a unique and diverse nation.